Concept, Theory and Related Research
‘Smart province’ applied in Nakhonnayok is derived from intense related research of concepts and theories expected to be used in references and future study. The content has been revised according to researches and documents.
1. Concept and theory
1.1 Concept about the information and communication technology
Information and Communication technology (ICT) is developed from intranet computer that serves only in a specific area. However, in present days the whole world is connected through internet. Scholars have defined ICT as follows,
SukhumChaleisub1 defined ICT as 2 main subjects composed of computer technology and telecommunication technology combined together to prepare, store and distribute information in any form including sounds, images, video, letters and numbers for more effective and accurate purposes.
National office of education council2 defined ICT as a combination of information technology (IT) and communication technology (CT) for proper storage and easier access to people to utilize.
In conclusion, ICT means an instrument used to apply or develop our way of lives consisted of 2 parts which are hardware and software.
1.2 Modernization theory
Wilbert Moore (1963)3 defined modernization as the total transformation of a traditional or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organization that characterize the 'advanced', economically prosperous, and relatively stable nations.
Cyril Black (1967)4 defined modernization as a the process by which historically evolved institutions are adapted to the rapidly changing functions that reflect the unprecedented increase in man’s knowledge, permitting control over his environment, that accompanied the scientific revolution.
PatcharinSirasuntorn (2547:92)5 defined modernization as important characteristics that turn our social into modernization which are
1. Revolution of living and technology used in social tradition to a more scientific and high technology world
2. Agricultural revolution from a small scale into a large business, hiring numbers of laborer
3. More industrial machine
4. People’s way of lives has changed from non-formal to formal
5. Expansion of urban area
6. More infrastructure such as hospitals, public utility roads and schools
7. More middle-class people and entrepreneur
8. Changing in beliefs of superstitious beings and turning into more individualism, rational and materialism
9. Downsizing family from extended to single
10. Complicated social institutes
11. Shifting written laws from social tradition into global scale
2. Related Researches
Erlangung der Doktorwürde, Inaugural-Dissertation, PhilosophischenFakultät, &Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (2012)6 mentioned that in 1997 Malaysia started the construction of the largest knowledge-based cluster in the form of a new township known as Cyberjaya. The cluster was designed to be the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) hub following other Science Park models in developed countries. The planning and development of the cluster is highly centralized and focuses on hard rather than soft infrastructure. For this reason, researchers conducted a study on how does urban development contribute to knowledge flow and knowledge sharing in Cyberjaya, Malaysia? And this research has three main objectives; the first objective is to contribute towards the understanding on how physical development impacts the formation of knowledge-based clusters in Peninsular Malaysia. The next objective is to analyze the influence of spatial planning and urban development on Cyberjaya as a knowledge-based cluster. Finally, the last objective is to thoroughly examine knowledge sharing, knowledge network, and the importance of spatial proximity among people working in ICT companies in the city.
In this research applies a case study approach as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. It uses the bottom up technique in which the research begins by understanding the situation through individuals living and working in the city before proceeding to analyzing the development at the macro level. The study found that politically motivated cluster development has influenced the epistemic landscape, knowledge-based cluster and knowledge workers in Cyberjaya. Furthermore, physical infrastructure alone would not produce the innovative and knowledge outcome. Malaysia’s centralized administrative system, the race based policy, elites and crony based capital distribution have also impacted the growth of knowledge-based clusters. It creates an opportunity for the political elites to benefit from the massive infrastructure projects such as Cyberjaya.
To conclude, this study has shown that geographical proximity is still important in the creation of a knowledge city. It encourages knowledge-sharing and enhances social networking. At the same time, in the Malaysian context, the usage of symbols in the social space together with crony capitalism plays a vital role in constructing the city. This hearkens back to the main argument that the knowledge city of Cyberjaya reifies the dominance of the Malays. The city of Cyberjaya is created by and benefits the elites. This contributes to the uneven development in the cluster of Cyberjaya and in overall Malaysia.
HeeJoong Song (2005)7 mentioned that the E-government of Korea is cited as a major success case in numerous international economic indexes, and has served as one of the most successful Best Practice models in the global community. Korea has been recognized as the world’s leading IT nation. The e-Government action plan of Korea divided in three stages; pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation.
First stage is pre-implementation; pre-implementation of E-government largely consists of 3 phases: design, development and deployment. At the design stage, political leaders drive the E-government initiative, and there should be a few champions carrying out activities to increase social awareness. Secondly, the social governance including the establishment of a core agency to implement E-government needs to be built up. Thirdly, the core agency analyzes environments. Fourthly, national and international cases need to be studied for benchmarking.
Next stage is implementation; in the implementation phase, the vision and strategic goals of E-government need to be set based on the review of the environment and constraints. Secondly, the roadmap and milestones corresponding to the strategic goals need to be set up. Thirdly, strategic priorities should be decided by reviewing the degree of government innovation, aspects of demand and supply, bottom-up and top-down approach, sourcing, and the result of the stakeholder analysis. Fourthly As-is analysis and To-be model for the present resources, which are key success factors, should be proposed. Finally, processes like BPR and ISP and system development start.
The last stage is post-implementation; at the post-implementation phase, 3 tasks should be done; firstly, the performance of the project should be evaluated by monitoring whether it has been implemented according to the plan without risk. Secondly, the operation and maintenance of the project should be considered along with management of information resources. Thirdly, the promotion of E-government services to people feedback for the project should be carried out to make the services fully utilized and to develop the second stage of E-government.
Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi&Ajay Kumar Bharti (2010)8 discussed about the basic problems and acceptability of e-Governance in India. In spite of poor infrastructure, poverty, illiteracy, language dominance and all the other reasons India has number of award winning e-governance projects. Effective promotion schemes by the Indian government will also a boosting factor to provide quality services to their citizens, which means there is huge potential for the development of e-governance in various sectors. According to Skoch consultancy New Delhi , 81% citizens report reduction in corruption, 95% find cost of e-governance affordable and 78% favors fast of delivery of services. Therefore they concluded that e-Governance is the key to the “Good Governance” for the developing countries like India to minimize corruption, provides efficient and effective or quality services to their citizens.
Song Heejoon (EwhaWomans University)9 mentioned in E-Government of Korea that the e-Government of Korea is cited as a major success case in numerous international economic indexes, and has served as one of the most successful Best Practice models in the global community which evolved in three stages, was successfully achieved through the consistent leadership of successive presidents. In addition, the necessary visions and objectives, established with consideration of efficiency and effectiveness, were appropriately applied and progressed in sync with the development of back-office, front-office, and e-Government infrastructure in the ever-changing environment of supply and demand throughout the IT development process. The expansion of mass public services and transparency in the administrative process as well as the election of the democratic government also contributed to the advancement of Korea’s e-Government. Such rapid progress was achieved through the formation of the appropriate implementation organizations, flexible distribution of financial resources of the Information Promotion Fund, and the provision of a technical support network by the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the National Information Society Agency (NIA).