Literature Reviews

Literature Reviews

1. Diffusion Innovation
(Website :

Diffusion Innovation is process that products, services or new concepts spread to people. The spread rate of new products each category are different (Solomon, 2002) for example, in America each products have the spread rate to reach people not equal, 38 years for radio, 13 years for television, 4 years for website and 3 years for iPod innovation. Moreover the spread rate of Facebook is only one year. End of year 2009 has new Facebook users about 60 millions. (United Nation’s Cyberschoolbus Document, Apple, Facebook, 2010)
Mobile Phone has transfer communication from voice to non-voice such as game online, internet using or Mobile Banking. Mobile Banking is new technology that use for channel in communication between the bank and customers via mobile phone. It makes customers is comfortable and receive speedy service.

Brett King forecasts in next 5 years that Mobile Banking is tend to be popular and the amount of customers who use counter service at the bank tend to decrease because they execute many transactions via mobile phone or website.
From statistical data of America found that 93% of American have Mobile Phone, 27% use Mobile Banking. In the part of Mobile Banking users have 99% of users use for checking the balance and 90% use for check the transactions. In addition, 50% of iPhone users have Mobile Banking application. (Brett, 2010)

In this research, the result tells that has 48% of people use the Mobile Banking. So it means now we are staying in the growth zone or Early Majority zone in the S-Curve Technology’s Roger because it has a lot of customer, there are 52% of areas under the normal distribution of Diffusion Innovation Theory, to persuade them to use the Mobile Banking.

2. Technology Acceptance Method (TAM)


Technology Acceptance Method (TAM) described that the decisions of the customers in using technology depend on many factors are shown as below:

Perceive Ease of Use is the degree of user’s believe that technology easy to learn about functions. They effect directly to using the system and indirectly to using the system by benefits perception.(Agarwal& Prasad, 1999; Davis, Bagozzi&Warshaw,
1989; Jackson, Chow & Leitch, 1997; Venkatesh,1999)

Perceive Usefulness is the perception of users that technology has a lot of benefits and the new development of technology will support the efficiency function. They effect directly to the intension to use(Agarwal& Prasad, 1999; Davis, Bagozzi&Warshaw,1989; Jackson, Chow & Leitch, 1997; Venkatesh,1999).The objective of social network is creating the good relationship of users by activities. It increases satisfaction of users.

Social Influence is the behavior of persons that are effect to changing concept, feeling or behavior of others. (Fishbein&Ajzen, 1975; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, 2003). The research founded that Social Influence is effect to decide to join social network of students.

Attitude toward use is users’ attitude and intention that derive from the perception of benefits and easy to use technology. The users who have the perception of benefits and easy to use technology have a good attitude which effect to the intention of using technology. (Ajzen&Fishbein, 1980)

Intention to use is the intentions of users that attempt to use technology which make them tend to use technology in the future.

Our research shows that TAM theory is acceptance because TAM says that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use determine an individual's intention to use a system with intention to use serving as a mediator of actual system use. From research 192 people who have been used Mobile Banking, say that Mobile Banking is easy to use (got 4.00 point) and Mobile Banking is usefulness because the most of people use Mobile Banking to transfer money and check the balance, that are function which Mobile Banking can do.
From 208 people who never use Mobile Banking, 82 people thought Mobile Banking is useless (39.42%),so TAM theory isaccepted for this group too because they think Mobile Banking is useless and hard to use, so they don’t want to use Mobile Banking.

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